There is definitely a random factor to disease and (more largely mortality), but I would suggest that (increasingly) there exists calculated factors as well. These would mostly fall into 3 categories; genetics, environment and habits. All three have random and calculated elements to each:
As an sperm/egg/zygote/fetus/infant/child you personally do not have a say as to the genetic material which you inherent from your parents, the conditions under which you were conceived/live or the lifestyle habits and risks (eating, exercise, chainsaw juggling) of your family. These then could be considered random (the hand you were dealt as it were). However as an adult, you increasingly are able to control these determining factors. Presumably, you will make decisions which prolong your own mortality or which maximize the health of your offspring (stopping smoking, losing weight, moving away from nuclear reactors) and you make conscious (i.e. calculated) decisions regarding who is desirable to partner with and combine genetically.
No where in any of this would I see the omniscient, guiding hand of a higher being intervening and making decisions about disease or miscarriages or who is going to have access to health care or . . . . anything.