Came across this channel on the youtubes and of course first went for the Norse video, cause, Vikings.
It was quite striking, to me anyway, that colonization seems to have never been an organized effort.
It was local rulers, Jarls, and/or well off people who kitted out an expedition of a limited number of ships with the intent to set up shop across the ocean. Few dozen people involved at the most.
With numbers like that, it's no wonder that the Skraelings gave them so much trouble. The tech lead the Norse had at this time, 10th, 11th, 12th century CE, was not large enough to allow, say, 20 men to defeat over a hundred, especially since these men weren't professional warriors. They were craftsmen, farmers, sailor, who, like most Norse, knew their way around a battleaxe or sword.
The only 'government' actions seem to have been conversion efforts and even then, not terribly intensive.
Also funny, it seems like, for a while, if bad luck lingered too long, they blamed it on Christ being a dick and returned to worshipping the red-headed gods. Religion is a buffet after all.