Good to know, HAL.
Anyways, Seppuku, you've kind of hinted at where the Catholics stand with regards to other faiths. Basically, Catholics believe that anyone can be saved through God's grace, and the ways we align ourselves with that grace include:
- Good works
Obviously, the Christian notion of faith begins to stretch as you move outside of Christianity, especially with regards to non-Abrahamic religions and irreligion. However, if you view it in terms of revelation (things that God has shown to humans), it begins to make a bit more sense.
At the highest end, Catholics believe the fullest and most complete revelation is through Jesus, and that God continues to guide our understanding of this through the Sacred Tradition of the Catholic Church. Thus, following Catholic teachings is the best way to align oneself with that saving grace and orient towards salvation.
At the lowest end, Catholics believe that God has revealed Himself on a personal level to each person via his or her conscience that provides a natural inclination towards goodness and truth. Even if a person intellectually rejects the notions of the divine and/or absolute morality, if she or he cultivates that conscience and tries to be a good person, we believe it is still possible to align towards saving grace and ultimately be saved.
Of course, in the middle is an entire spectrum of revelation: Protestants have the fullness of revelation in Jesus but not Sacred Tradition to help deepen understanding of Him, Jews and Muslims have the Old Testament revelations but not the fullness of Jesus' revelations (Jews do not recognize Him; Muslims see Him as one of many prophets--not the most complete revelation), other faiths may recognize God or gods but lack the complete message, etc.
Following from all this, the key is aligning oneself towards saving grace through one's own experience of faith (used loosely to include implicit faith through conscience described above). Rejecting that faith means to turn away from that grace and reject salvation. So it certainly does not include the joke from the OP's video: "Aw shit, I'm good then. Back to the strip club!" On the contrary, such a rejection of one's faith in favor of carnal desires is what Catholics believe pulls man away from God and puts us at risk for eternal death.
In other words, those who know divine truth but choose to reject it (whether it be a Christian rejecting Christ or an atheist abandoning conscious) are also choosing to reject salvation. This isn't the same as ignorance: never knowing or recognizing that truth. I honestly don't know where those who lose their faith fall into this spectrum, though my personal view is that it'd be closer to the latter.
This doesn't mean that Catholics shouldn't try to convert others. On the contrary, through bringing others to the Catholic faith we believe we're bringing them closer to God's purest revelation. It also doesn't mean that those who aren't Catholic should be content with just being a good person and not worry about their beliefs. On the contrary, each person has an obligation to explore the revelations God has given them to the best of their ability, and be willing to go where that journey takes them.
What it does
mean is that Catholics should not look down upon or despise those who do not share our beliefs, since we believe that God's grace is for everyone. Rather, we should respect those with different beliefs for us and look for common ground, even on a level as basic as "do good," and try to "meet there."
Hopefully this didn't come off as sounding preachy, because that's not my intent.