My name is [name removed] and I'm a christian.
I was listening to a video posted on youtube.com about clever questions to ask christians...
I would agree that many if not most of the christian population would have a hard time having a satisfactory answer for your questions, even me, but you have to consider that in our view God is above our wisdom, and that his grand plan for the world is intended to heal and rid the world of these painful things. In the last chapter of the book of Revelation, this is mentioned as will not remember the things of the past and everything will be renewed.
When you talk about the efficiency of prayer, we are told by jesus that we should be ceasseless about asking God for certain needs. This truth is apparent in the parabole of the fish that a neibor needed from a friend in the middle of the night. By bothering and knocking of the neibor's door, he would eventualy answer the one knocking and asking. He also mentioned that before we even open our mouth, God already knows our needs. Therefore, not to repeat senseless words like a menthra.
Why doesn't God heal amputees and so on... Why is people starving, etc. As I mentioned before, you have to see the greater plan of God and understand that we, mankind, has chosen this path of life from Adam's time. We are painfully cultivating the fruits of our original choice. God has decided to bring us back from the very beginning, the very first chapter of our misbehavior and on, by showing that redemption would come.
When you mention about the flood covering the mount everest... You have to realise that mount everest didn't exist in that time. please re-read the chapters of creation up to the flood. You will notice that the there was probably little if not any rain at all on the earth. the water was comming out of the ground like dew in the morning. You will note also that there was only hills for the most part. The earth or mainland part of the planet was one piece of land. When the rain came in Noah's time, the rain only falled for 40 days without ceassing. Most of the water came from the opening of the deep, like a whomb opening and the water rushed out. The water was on the earth for more than a year... covering the highest "hills" not the mountains... This event created the continent separation, making a whole cataclismic destruction of the previous world. So much so, that when scientist are looking for signs of a flood, they are looking at the world with a very wrong scale. I remember the recent movie Godzilla, where the scientist is in one footprint of the giant monster, and he's been told to look at the foot print. He keeps asking... But, where is it? and all along, he was in it. But it was too big for him to see. You have to step back a lot more to see.The formation of the mountain range is like pushing a carpet against the wall. Look at the direction of the mountain ranges and the direction the continents took from the middle ocean ridge.
Part of the grand plan of God, is that every believer in Christ would be not only forgiving their sins, making them perfect in the eyes of God, but to make them priest and reigning kings in his coming kingdom. That his why christian have a hope to be in heaven with Jesus Christ. Not to play harp but to be in charge of the kingdom of God with Christ. This kingdom is in heaven and extend to the earth. God's purpose in the end is to live with us forever. Read the last one or two chapters of Revelation.
Christians who believe in Christ ought to get baptise and therefore be symbolically be baptised in Christ's death. They are to "die" with Christ on the cross and be "resurected" symbolically with him. Therefore, being "dead" in their body, they're sins have been paid, as death is the wages of sin. And they are to surrender their bodies to God for the service of justice in this world. Read chapters 6, 7 and 8 or the book of Romans.
We are not putting our faith in this world, no matter how much monney or opportunities are offered to us, but we look for the future reward that comes from our King Jesus.
So, if you prefer this world, it's your choice... The scriptures say, that the judgement is upon you as you refused to believe in the salvation of God through Jesus death and resurection.
Know this though. Everyone will be resurected at the last day, even you, for judgement. Everyone!
I sincerely hope you will take the time to read the bible, weather you start by the new testament or the old. If you need more information from me, you may ask... I'll try to direct you in the best of my knowledge.
If I'd get amputated or if my life would be a wreck, I would still be humble before God and praise his name. YHWH and his son, Jesus, the messiah, my king, my hope and redeemer.
May you see the light through the hardship of life.