I think that there have always been individuals or groups of individuals within (almost?) all societies who doubted the existence or power of the various deities. The ancient Greeks seemed to have the members who questioned their deities the most.
But most societies strove to answer the big questions, and the questions that impacted most on their lives. Who are we, and how did we come to be here? Why is the rain/drought ruining our crops? Why do we get sick? What are those lights in the night sky? And all societies came up with answers to those questions, in the absence of an understanding of evolution or weather patterns or bacteria or stars and solar systems and galaxies. And those answers generally involved some supernatural beings. So although I cannot say for sure, I think it is a fair bet that no societies were formed based on the concept of atheism.
In terms of literature and art and music, of course! One of my favorite authors, Isaac Asimov, was an atheist and a secular humanist. Alice Walker. Langston Hughes. Zora Neil Hurston. Virginia Woolf. Ursula LeGuin. Douglas Adams. I could go on and on. And of course gazillions of philosophers and scientists ranging from Bertrand Russell and Carl Sagan and Neil Degrasse Tyson and Stephan Hawking and the famous writers who focus on atheism as a topic, such as Richard Dawkins and Christopher Hitchens and probably a lot of names that others on this forum know better than I do.
In terms of the visual arts, there is of course, Diego Rivera and his wife Frida Kahlo. I am sure there are many others, and perhaps our resident art aficionados can add to the list. I can tell some great “Diego the atheist” stories if you’d like.
Music? Well, in addition to our young but accomplished resident violist, there are quite a few atheist musicians.
Lori, I think I’ve read enough of your posts to be pretty sure you will like this song, even though you are a Christian.
One of my favorite musicians in the world, Manu Chao, is an outspoken atheist. If you don’t know him, he spent his childhood in France as a Galician refugee from the Franco regime. He sings in many languages, mostly Spanish and French, and to a lesser degree English and Portuguese and sometimes Arabic and Wolof. (edited to add) Social and economic justice are common themes in his work.
Here is one of his English songs.
And here is one that you might be familiar with. I don’t think it is his best work, but it seems to be one of the few songs that really got play in the English speaking world.