In the 70's when I was a kid, we had a big semi-wild male dog and never got him fixed. Nobody else got their dogs fixed that I knew of, either. It was just not something people thought much about-- or we thought it was bad for the dog. Male dogs were supposed to be "intact" and aggressive to be good watchdogs.
Our dog roamed the neighborhood, jumping fences and visiting other doggies. We would tie him up, but if there was a female around, he would slip the chain and go for a booty call. He was a wonderful doggie, but I assume that he fathered several litters of puppies. And some of them probably met a bad end due to being unwanted.
Now I have two big shelter doggies and both are fixed. Neither has made any unwanted pups and they are great dogs. They are both good watchdogs and very protective of their human family.