Thanks for replying, rocky12. As a layman interested in evolution and cosmology, I'll try to show how at least some of your questions can be answered.
Proof of evolution? Well, we would have to see it happen for one. Observable evidence. We see "natural selection", but NEVER one species turning into another. Time constraints of course.
Precisely. Evolution predicts incremental changes over long periods of time, particularly the major morphological ones creationists seem to regard as the only acceptable form of specieation. And that is in fact what we see in the fossil record.
Also, we should see more accurate and provable dating methods to prove where these fossils are found.
It's unclear what you mean here. What does dating a fossil have to do with establishing where it was dug up? The various means we have of dating fossils (and geological specimens in general) provide acceptable and verifiable levels of accuracy. If they didn't, much of modern geology (including mining, oil drilling, earthquake prediction and other practical applications) would be unworkable and replaced with something that did
We should see clear transitional fossils....again, difficult to prove with the millions of species available to look at.
Again, I gave you a link to a number of transitional fossils. Are you still demanding chimeras? How many times do you have to be told that is a creationist parody of evolution, not the gradualism that mutation+natural selection+time actually produces? Archaopteryx is about as clear an example as we are likely to find, along with Tiktaalik (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tiktaalik
We should see a far more simplistic life schematic. Why so many different kinds of trees? Why not..."here we have a tree...here we have grass...here we have a weed....here we have a four-legged animal...etc".
Really? Why would this be proof of evolution and not creationism?
There is so much variation and complexity and perfection among the life forms. So much dependency upon one another that they co-exist. They can't exist without the other.
There have been mass extinctions in Earth's history where between 50-80% of all animal genera died off:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass_extinctions
Yet always some life persisted and through evolution diversified. So clearly at least some living things are just fine without a diverse ecology.
And "perfection"? Really? AIDS, appendicitis, the marine tongue-eating-louse (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tongue_parasite
), all examples of perfection?
We should see obvious steps from each little transitional form and mutation.
Why? Given the dynamic nature of the Earth, it's remarkable that we have such an extensive fossil record. First, an animal has to die in an area where it won't decay too fast for at least its hard parts to be preserved. Then the preserving medium has to harden and be undisturbed by erosion. For extremely long periods, depending on the age of the fossil. Lastly, the strata containing it has to be accessible by us. And again, we have
transitions showing fish to land-dwelling tetrapods, dinosaurs to birds, etcetera.
We should see many more planets capable of supporting life....
The universe is an awfully big place; we've barely begun to look around. But in just the last decade we've found over 700 extrasolar planets. From what we know of cosmology and planetary science, our sun and Earth are fairly typical in terms of stability, type and chemical composition.
we got darn lucky to be the perfect distance from the sun. We should see more planets with water. Without water, no life. We got awful lucky if you ask me....
Weak anthropic principle:(http://www.talkorigins.org/indexcc/CI/CI301.html
). The universe isn't designed for us; we're adapted to the universe.
And as for water-bearing worlds, there are Mars and the moons of Jupiter and Saturn, right in our own backyard. Enceladus in particular (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enceladus_%28moon%29
) has been proven to have liquid water; something we have only indirect evidence of on Mars.
I don't doubt you could come up with more. But I don't really expect any of my answers to convince you. I replied to educate myself.